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Environmental Monitoring on Wake Atoll Cooperative Agreement




November 6, 2023



January 15, 2024




Award Floor:


Match Required?





Entity Types:

Nonprofits (with 501(c)(3) status), Public & State controlled institutions of higher education, City or township governments, County governments, For profit organizations other than small businesses, Native American tribal governments (Federally recognized), State governments, Small businesses, Independent school districts




Source Type:


In this opportunity announcement, WS will make up to $200,000 USD available to fund environmental monitoring on Wake Atoll for the Wake Atoll Rat Eradication Project. This funding opportunity will test the decay of brodifacoum in selected environmental compartments, as stated in the Wake Atoll Rat Eradication Projects EA. APHIS-Wildlife Services (WS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Air Force
(USAF) 611 Civil Engineer Squadron, Installation Management Flight (CES/CEI) to eradicate the
Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) and White-toothed woodrat (Neotoma leucodon) from the entirety
of Wake Atoll (Wake). Cooperatively, WS and Island Conservation (IC) will deliver the
rodenticide Brodifacoum 25-W (B-25W) Conservation by helicopter, hand broadcast, bait
stations, and spot baiting. This project is collectively known as the Wake Atoll Rat Eradication
Project (WAREP).
The overall objective of this funding opportunity is to test the decay of brodifacoum in selected
environmental compartments, as stated in the Wake Atoll Rat Eradication Project’s
Environmental Assessment (EA) through environmental monitoring.
APHIS-Wildlife Services anticipates awarding one cooperative agreement for a maximum of
$200,000 USD to the following entities: Unrestricted.
A.2 Funding Priorities
It is ecologically prudent and a regulatory requirement to assess the decay of brodifacoum
residues in the environment and its impact on island fauna. WAREP will apply the highly toxic
rodenticide B-25W to all terrestrial areas of Wake Atoll using aerial application, hand broadcast,
and bait station application methods. This presents a primary (bait consumption), secondary
Environmental Monitoring on Wake Atoll-2
(consumption of prey with incurred residues), and tertiary (consumption of forage items that
consumed prey with incurred residues) risk to island terrestrial and aquatic fauna.
As B-25W pellets are applied on Wake, the presence of brodifacoum residues throughout the
environment is expected to increase rapidly and peak shortly after the last bait application.
Following the cessation of bait application and degradation, B-25W will incorporate into the
food web; however, residue levels are expected to decline rapidly as brodifacoum percolates
into the soil, is degraded by bacterial action, is metabolized by consumers, and is otherwise
flushed from the environment by various physical and chemical processes. The funding priority
will assess these expectations by collecting data detailing brodifacoum residues’ decay in vital
environmental compartments detailed in WAREP’s Final Environmental Assessment (EA).
These compartments are marine and terrestrial water bodies, soil, sea and shorebirds, reptiles,
terrestrial invertebrates, marine invertebrates, and marine fish. Samples will be collected two
weeks before and immediately after the first aerial broadcast and immediately after and six
months post-final aerial broadcast.
Applicant proposals must directly address and support the funding priority described above.
A.3 Other Funding Considerations
There are no other funding considerations.
A.4 Alignment with USDA APHIS Goals
The mission of APHIS Wildlife Services is to provide expertise to resolve conflicts between
people and wildlife. Using an integrated approach, APHIS-Wildlife Services facilitates
coexistence to protect agriculture, natural resources (including threatened and endangered
species), property and infrastructure, and public health and safety.
This funding opportunity supports the overall mission of USDA, which is “to serve all Americans
by providing effective, innovative, science-based public policy leadership in agriculture, food
and nutrition, natural resource protection and management, rural development, and related
issues with a commitment to deliverable equitable and climate-smart opportunities that inspire
and help America thrive.”

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